PsychSpider ZPID

Search Tips - Help

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Searching With Single Words

The simplest search is a single word that you think appears in the document you are looking for. If the term is unusual or unique, you will be more likely to find that specific document. For example, if you are interested in Testkompendien, the following query will very likely find pages of interest to you:


Stemmed Words

Stemming takes into account in which language the word is written. PsychSpider is not able to detect the language of your search request and therefore assumes, that your query is in German as long as you are in the German section of PsychSpider. If you are using the English interface of PsychSpider, all input is treated as written in English. Searches through 'Did You Mean' don't have stemming enabled.

When you submit a single word query, the PsychSpider expands your query to find documents that not only match the term you entered, but also stemmed variations of the term. For example, if you enter the following query, the PsychSpider tries to find not only pages that contain the word meet, but also pages that contain meets and meeting.



Always use double quotation marks to enclose terms that include unusual characters like the ampersand in S&L. PsychSpider automatically expands the search to include variations of the term with and without the unusual character. For example, this query finds pages that match S&L, S & L, and S L:


PsychSpider in this version is not case sensitive. Searches for Rose, rose, ROSE or RoSe always retrieve the same amount of documents.


Most operators and modifiers must be enclosed within angle brackets (< >) to distinguish them from the actual query term. The words AND , OR , and NOT are always treated as PsychSpider Query Language operators unless they are enclosed within double quotation marks.

weiterführende Informationen

Additional Information

Tip of the week: Some terms may have more than one meaning in a query. "Depression" can be the illness or the time of the Great Depression in the US. To get relevant results combining your search term with other words might help (Tip 11).

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